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Kill Malarial Mosquitoes NOW!

 

A Declaration of the Informed and Concerned 03-07-2006

 

 

We, the undersigned, are justifiably concerned, anguished and outraged that:

·         Over 500 million human beings suffer from malaria in Africa and around the world annually. This is more people than live in the United States, Canada and Mexico combined.

·         Well over a million of these people – mostly children and pregnant women – are killed by malaria each and every year.

·         Malaria wreaks an enormous economic toll, incapacitating otherwise productive people, leaving thousands with brain damage, and keeping millions at home to care for the sick, instead of producing goods and services to lift Africa and other regions out of unacceptable, abject poverty.

·         The United States, Europe and other advanced economies have failed to use every available means to stop the devastation that malarial mosquitoes inflict upon the world’s poorest citizens. They are the same methods we used to eradicate malaria in our countries. Yet, we have mindlessly withheld them from other people for over 30 years – to tragic, almost genocidal effect.

·         Almost none of the $200 million that US taxpayers contribute to world malaria control each year is actually spent to kill or repel the deadly mosquitoes that inject parasites into the bloodstreams of their victims. These shortsighted policies fail to recognize that spraying small amounts of DDT on the interior walls of homes can effectively kill or repel malarial mosquitoes – giving long-lasting protection to the families within.

·         Amazingly, some in government even oppose using malaria control monies to kill the parasite that malarial mosquitoes transmit from person to person! These individuals would block or limit funding for the purchase of medicines, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which cure malaria and inhibit its spread wherever they are used.

·         DDT as yet plays no part in the program announced by President Bush in July 2005, to spend an additional $1.2 billion on malaria control over the next five years. Without DDT and ACTs, this spending will be needlessly wasted, along with millions of additional lives.

We understand the facts about DDT and its historic opponents, as summarized in the Background and References, below. We now seek humane, heroic action by US leaders to alter the ugly course of human history with regard to malaria.

 

Our objective: To end malaria’s worldwide reign of terror

We want to slash disease and death tolls in Africa and worldwide, by changing the way the US government funds malaria control. We want cost-effective measures that actually kill and repel malarial mosquitoes, eliminate parasites, cure malaria patients – and save lives.

We therefore ask Congress and the President to:

·         Ensure that at least 2/3 (two-thirds) of annual Congressional appropriations for malaria control are earmarked for insecticidal and medicinal commodities – with up to half of such monies targeted to the treatment and cure of infected patients.

·         Specifically direct such funds to the actual purchase and deployment of: (1) DDT, or any other proven, more cost-effective insecticide/repellant, for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) in any given malarial locality; and (2) of ACTs, or other equally effective and durable drugs, for treatment of malaria patients and reduction in disease transmission rates.

·         Require that this 2/3 formula be mirrored in the annual malaria control spending by any agency receiving US malaria control monies – such as US Agency for International Development, World Health Organization, World Bank, UNICEF, Roll Back Malaria, and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis.

·         Direct that this 2/3 proportion will be subject to reduction ONLY if replaced by corresponding expenditures for any malaria control measure (such as larvaciding) that has been proven equally or more cost-effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality rates in specific localities – as certified, in advance of such expenditure and replacement, by the directors of the US Centers for Disease Control, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences or similar independent agency, based on controlled epidemiological studies in the field.

In full accord with the UN Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, this objective contemplates DDT use only for indoor residual spraying (which results in zero-to-negligible external environmental residue) – and not for aerial or any other form of outdoor application.[1] It does not contemplate the use of insecticides, including insecticide-treated mosquito nets, not shown to be more cost-effective than indoor residual spraying with DDT for all members of affected populations.

In the absence of empirical evidence to the contrary, we the undersigned regard as inadequate – and therefore morally unacceptable – any policy that permits any sum in excess of one-third of US anti-malaria funding to be expended on contractors, consultants, “technical assistance,” conferences, “capacity building,” overhead, bed nets or similar measures, rather than the proven insecticidal and medical interventions described above.

Bureaucrats, contractors, academics, insecticide companies, anti-pesticide activists and other self-interested parties have frequently protested that DDT for indoor residual spraying is no panacea – and falsely claimed that alternative methods work equally well in controlling malaria. However, the fact is, nothing in the history of man has proven more effective than the combination of insecticides such as DDT and effective medicines like ACTs, for saving human lives from the scourge of malaria.

DDT enabled the United States, Europe and most advanced economies to eradicate malaria. It must now be permitted and encouraged to start saving lives in Africa, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world where malarial mosquitoes continue to kill thousands of innocent children and parents every day. Because:

·         Allocation decisions on US appropriations for malaria control must be made by Congress and the White House;

·         The US foreign aid and multilateral aid bureaucracies have proven themselves incompetent and unwilling over many years to make effective commodity purchases and allocation decisions;

·         Most of the world, including the World Health Organization, has endorsed DDT for indoor residual spraying through the UN Stockholm Convention; and

·         Americans and most of the world embrace health, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness as fundamental Human Rights – and yet the effect of current malaria policies is to deny those Human Rights to billions of the world’s poorest people;

Now, therefore, we the undersigned Coalition of the Informed and Concerned hold that the burden of scientific and moral proof rests with any who would argue that more than one-third of US and world malaria control spending should support measures other than DDT and ACTs (or any other proven, more cost-effective interventions) for combating this horrific disease.

If and when the opponents of DDT and ACTs can show and obtain certification as provided above that something else works better to save human lives from malaria, we the undersigned will readily – even eagerly – accede to something less than this two-thirds formula.

Until then, however, we will fight furiously for every human life now hanging in the balance, as a function of current, myopic, errant and unconscionable US and global malaria control policies.

We urge all people of conscience, moral conviction and human decency to join us in ending malaria’s reign of terror in Africa and the developing world. We hereby implore Congress and the President to stop the misguided malaria spending, stop the talking, and finally take real action to:

 

Kill Malarial Mosquitoes NOW!

 

Signatories:

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Desmond M Tutu Nobel Peace Laureate (1984), Archbishop Emeritus, South Africa

F. W. de Klerk Nobel Peace Laureate (1993), Former President of South Africa

Norman E. Borlaug, PhD Nobel Peace Laureate (1970), Professor of International Agriculture, Texas

Edwin Meese III Former Attorney General of the United States

Norris McDonald African American Environmentalist Association

Andrew Spielman, PhD Professor of Tropical Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health

Admiral Harold M. Koenig, MD Former Surgeon General of the US Navy (retired), Maryland

Patrick Moore, PhD Co-founder of Greenpeace and forest ecologist, British Columbia, Canada

Kenneth D. Christman, MD President, Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, Ohio

Elizabeth Whelan, ScD President, American Council on Science & Health, New York

Robert S. Desowitz, PhD Professor Emeritus, Tropical Medicine, U of Hawaii and N Carolina

Abere Mihrete, PhD Director, Anti-Malaria Association, Ethiopia

M. Fazlur Rahman Former Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Bangladesh

Harry C. Alford President & CEO, Natl Black Chamber of Commerce, Washington, DC

Roy Innis National Chairman, Congress of Racial Equality, New York

Rabbi Daniel Lapin President, Toward Tradition, Washington

E. Calvin Beisner, PhD Associate Professor, Knox Theological Seminary, Florida

Reverend Robert Sirico President, Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & Liberty, Michigan

Rev. Ren Broekhuizen Retired Pastor and former African Missionary, Michigan and Wyoming

Samuel C Wolgemuth Vice Chair, World Relief Corporation, Illinois

David M. Stanley Chairman, National Taxpayers Union, Washington, DC

T. Kenneth Cribb, Jr. Former Domestic Policy Advisor to President Ronald Reagan

David M. Beasley Former Governor of South Carolina

John L. Boone Chairman & Founder, Presbyterian Action for Faith and Freedom

Director, Institute for Religion & Democracy

Signatories:

 

Physicians, infectious disease experts and scientists 1

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Amir Attaran, D Phil, LLB Canada Research Chair, Institute of Population Health; Faculty of Law

University of Ottawa, Canada

Roger Bate, PhD Fellow, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC

Norman E. Borlaug, PhD Distinguished Professor of International Agriculture, Texas A&M Univ

1970 Nobel Peace Laureate and Father of the “Green Revolution, Texas

US National Medal of Science laureate, 2005

Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap Professor of Entomology (PhD), Kasetsart University, Thailand

Kenneth D. Christman, MD President, Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, Ohio

Robert S. Desowitz, PhD Professor Emeritus, Tropical Medicine and Medical Microbiology,

University of Hawaii, and ScD (London), North Carolina

Ildefonso Fernández-Salas Director, Laboratory of Medical Entomology and Graduate Program in

Medical Entomology, University of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Mary R. Galinski, PhD Associate Professor, Medicine & Infectious Diseases, Emory University

School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

Founder & President, Malaria Foundation International

Nancy Kerkvliet, PhD Professor of Toxicology, Oregon State University, Oregon

Admiral Harold M. Koenig, MD Former Surgeon General of the US Navy (retired), Maryland

Patrick Moore, PhD Co-founder of Greenpeace, forest ecologist

Chairman and Chief Scientist, Greenspirit Strategies, Canada

Andrew Spielman, PhD Professor of Tropical Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health

Donald E. Waite, DO, MPH Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University, Michigan

Author of Environmental Health Hazards: Recognition and Avoidance

Elizabeth Whelan, ScD President, American Council on Science & Health, New York

Robert J. Cihak, MD Past President, Association of American Physicians and Surgeons

Columnist for NewsMax.com and JewishWorldReview.com, Washington

Sylvie Manguin, PhD Research Professor in Medical Entomology, Institut de Recherche pour

le Développement (IRD), France

Jane M. Orient, MD President, Doctors For Disaster Preparedness, Arizona

Donald R. Roberts, PhD Professor of Health, Specialty in tropical public health, Maryland

Yasmin Rubio-Palis, PhD Chief Biologist, Ministry of Health, Venezuela

Leslie M. Burger, MD, FACP Major General, U.S. Army (Ret), US Veterans Health Administration

Maj. Gen. Vernon Chong, MD U.S. Air Force (retired), California

Capt. Thomas J. Contreras, PhD Medical Service Corps, United States Navy (retired)

Former Commanding Officer, Naval Medical Research Institute

Admiral W J McDaniel, MD United States Navy (retired), Washington

Admiral Melvin Museles, MD US Navy (ret), former Assoc Dean, Military Medical School, Florida

Richard Andre, PhD Professor, Medical Zoology and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Maryland

Mushtuq_Husain, MBBS, PhD Senior Scientific Officer, Department of Medical Social Science,

Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research, Bangladesh


Signatories:

 

Physicians, infectious disease experts and scientists 2

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Monthathip Kongmee, MS Entomologist, Department of Entomology, Kasetsart Univ, Thailand

Jean Mouchet Professor of Public Health, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement

(IRD), France

James L. Pendleton, MD Past President, Assn of American Physicians & Surgeons, Pennsylvania

M. Fazlur Rahman Managing Director, Ahsania Mission Cancer/General Hospital Project

Former Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare

Former Secretary, Ministry of Science & Technology (now ICT),

Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh

Gilbert Ross, MD Executive and Medical Dir, Amer Council on Science & Health, NY

Jerome C. Arnett, MD Private practice, internal and pulmonary medicine, West Virginia

Sir Colin Berry Professor of anatomy and histopathology, University of London

Former Dean of the London Hospital Medical College

Paul K. Branch, MD  Private Practice, Madison, Wisconsin

John W. Brimmell, PhD, MPH Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia

Richard E. Brown, MD Pediatrician, Mesa, Arizona

Melanie Confusione, RN After-Hours Pediatrics Urgent Care, Florida

Participant in periodic healthcare missions to Africa

Robert F. Conkling, MD Private Family Practice, Virginia

Ruth R Currin, RN Grosse Ile, MI

Cheryl Durstein-Decker MD Director, Shattering Darkness, Inc, Florida and Burkina Faso

Charles G Erickson MD Pediatric Consultant, Lincoln, Nebraska

Abraham S. Feigenbaum, PhD Nutritional biochemist (retired), Highland Park, NJ

Sarah P. Fellows, MPH Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Missouri

Major Shormin Ara Ferdousi, MD Child Specialist, Combined Military Hospital, Bangladesh

Dr Valeria Frighi Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, England

Scott Geller MD Private practice in ophthalmology, Fort Myers, Florida

Bruce Goldman, PhD Science journalist (medicine and cancer), California

Jeffrey M. Hartog, DMD, MD Plastic Surgeon, Winter Park, Florida

Marjorie Mazel Hecht Managing Editor, 21st Century Science & Technology, Virginia

Peter H. Helseth, MD, Minneapolis, MN

Sandy Hoar, MPAS, PA-C Asst Clinical Professor, George Washington Univ, Washington, DC

George Isajiw, MD Private Practice, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania

Rajiv Jain, MD, DO Emergency room physician, Virginia

Associate Professor, Marshall U Medical Center, Lavalette, WV

James Johnsen, MD Private practice, Fairfax, Virginia

Kusuma Johnsen, MD Cardiac care nurse, Fairfax, VA and Bangkok, Thailand

Jeffrey Kemprecos Director, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Turkey

Jay Lehr, PhD Science Director, Heartland Institute, Illinois


Signatories:

 

Physicians, infectious disease experts and scientists 3

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Christiane J. Levine, RN Coordinator, Student Leaders Against Malaria, Emory Univ, Georgia

Former chair, International Affairs, Atlanta Women’s Club

Russell C. Libby, MD Pediatric medicine, Fairfax, VA

Joyce Lockard, PhD Virologist (retired), Oregon

Member, American Association of University Women

Angela Logomasini, MS Director, Risk and Envir Policy, Competitive Enterprise Inst, Virginia

Brian MacWhinney Professor of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

Jack D. McCarthy, MD Private practice, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Tomas McFie, PhD Owner and director of wellness centers in Oregon, Virginia and Idaho

Wilbur K. Milhous, PhD Chief Science Officer for Therapeutics

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Maryland

Henry I. Miller, MD Fellow, The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, California

Lorraine Mooney Medical Demographer, Africa Fighting Malaria, England

Charles F. Morton, DDS Union City, MI

Daniel Pasquier, MD, PhD  Neurologist, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

Arthur B. Robinson, PhD President, Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, Oregon

Mauricio Humberto Rodriguez Chief of Public Health, Amazon Region, Colombia, South America

Professor Gustavo C. Rossi Mosquito Taxonomist, Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de

Vectores, Argentina

Marvin R. Rush, MD Huntingburg, Indiana

Sally L. Satel, MD Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC

Amma A. Semenya PhD candidate, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Georgia

Aye Yu Soe, MBBS, DMA Humphrey Fellow, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory U, Georgia

Former researcher in clinical malaria, Burma

Dr. Oscar Daniel Salomón, MD Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico e Investigación de Endemo-epidemias,

Argentina

Hugo Schmidt Molecular biologist, Great Britain

Roy W. Spencer, PhD Principal Research Scientist, Earth System Science Center,

The University of Alabama in Huntsville

Philip Stevens Director, Health Programme, International Policy Network

Anwarul Hasan Sufi, PhD Professor and former chairman, Department of Psychology,

University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh 

D. Rutledge Taylor, DO/MDCRT Private practice, Los Angeles, CA

T. Stephen Thompson President & CEO, Immtech International, Inc., Illinois

Former GM, Hepatitis & Infectious Disease Unit, Abbott Laboratories

John J. Verdon, Jr, MD Private practice, Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, New Jersey

Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Univ. of Dentistry & Medicine of NJ

David L. Wood, MD Clinical Professor of Plastic Surgery, University of California at Irvine

 

Signatories:

Religious and human rights leaders 1

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Harry C. Alford President & CEO, Natl Black Chamber of Commerce, Washington, DC

E. Calvin Beisner, PhD Associate Professor, Knox Theological Seminary, Florida

Member of Advisory Board, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance

John L. Boone Director, Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, DC

Chairman and Founder, Presbyterian Action for Faith and Freedom

Director, The Presbyterian Lay Committee

Rev. Ren Broekhuizen Retired Pastor and former African Missionary, Michigan and Wyoming

J. Ligon Duncan III, PhD Senior Minister, First Presbyterian Church, Mississippi

President, Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals

Roy Innis National Chairman, Congress of Racial Equality, New York

Rabbi Daniel Lapin President, Toward Tradition, Washington

Member of Advisory Board, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance

Garry J. Moes Advisory Board member, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance, California

Editor/Publisher, Graybrook Institute; Former editor, Associated Press

Reverend Robert Sirico President, Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & Liberty, Michigan

Member of Advisory Board, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance

Daniel Wolgemuth President and CEO, Youth for Christ/USA

Samuel C Wolgemuth Former President and CEO of Freedom Communications, Inc, Illinois

Vice Chair, World Relief Corporation (relief and development arm of

The National Association of Evangelicals)

Mary Jo Anderson Contributing Editor, Crisis Magazine

Reverend Paul W. Baer Host, Pediatric Ward, University Medical Center, Arizona

Pastor Emeritus, Our Savior's Lutheran Church, Arizona

Michael Bauman, PhD Professor of Theology and Culture, Hillsdale College, Michigan

Reverend John Michael Beers Dean, Ave Maria University, Florida

Member of Advisory Board, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance

Rabbi Joshua Ben-Gideon Assistant Rabbi, Congregation Olam Tikvah, Fairfax, VA

Rabbi Joel Berman Ohev Tzedek – Sha’arei Torah Congregation, Ohio

Corbin Boekhaus Student, Divinity School of Wake Forest University, North Carolina

Ray Bohlin, PhD President, Probe Ministries, Texas

Istvan Borzasi President, Convention of Hungarian Baptist Churches of Romania

Pastor Ren Broekhuizen Former missionary to Africa (retired), Michigan

Raquel Burciaga Mission Amen Lima, Peru

Scott Bryant Westminster Theological Seminary

Reverend Jeffrey E. Carroll Trinity Community Church, Maryland

Reverend David F. Chandler Pastor, Trinity Covenant Church, Connecticut

Mary Connelly Cathedral of St. Paul, Minnesota

Father Stuart Cranshaw Priest in Charge, Holy Trinity Church, Wyoming

Spiritual Advisor, Welch Cancer Center

Rev. Ronald T. Davidson President and Founder, Gleaning for the World, Virginia

 

Signatories:

Religious and human rights leaders 2

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Donald A. DeSmith The Servants of the Word, Michigan

Father Phillip W. DeVous Chaplain, Thomas More College, Kentucky

Maxie D. Dunnam Chancellor, Asbury Theological Seminar, Tennessee

Trenton D. Eastman Pastor, Beverly Hills Baptist Church, West Virginia

Scott Erbe InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Western Michigan University

Todd R. Flanders, PhD Headmaster, Providence Academy, Minnesota

Doug Floyd President, Spring of Light Ministries, Tennessee

Pheiga Gabisinpou Relief & Development Coordinator, Asian Baptist Federation

Joseph E. Gorra Managing Editor, Philosophia Christi, California

Reverend Scott R. Greenway Pastor, Caledonia Christian Reformed Church, Michigan

Reverend Bo Helmich Associate Pastor, Grace Church of the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado

Ismael Hernandez Exec Director, African Caribbean American Catholic Center, Florida

Reverend Irfon Hughes Pastor, Hillcrest Presbyterian Church, Volant, Pennsylvania

Member of Advisory Board, Interfaith Stewardship Alliance

Jerry Johnson, MACS, MPhil Director, The Apologetics Group, Virginia

Lynn Kennedy Founder and missionary, Shattering Darkness, Inc, Burkina Faso

John R. Khushal Associate Director, India Campus Crusade for Christ, India

Reverend Malcolm M. King III Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Tennessee

Reverend David S. Klompien Pastor, Dutton United Reformed Church, Michigan

Henry Krabbendam Chairman Africa Christian Training Institute, Georgia

Scott B. Luley, PhD Director, Christian Leadership Ministries, Eastern Region, New Jersey

Sister Mary Louise Matt Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, Minnesota

Retired teacher and diocesan director of religious education

Kris Mauren Exec Dir, Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & Liberty, Michigan

Father C. Eugene Morris Director, Office of the Permanent Diaconate, St. Louis, Missouri

Asst Professor of Sacramental Theology, Kenrick-Glennon Seminary

Juan Jose Ramirez Ochoa Assistant Professor, Universidad Francisco Marroquin, Guatemala

Harold Orndorff Campus Minister, Christian Student Fellowship, Northern Kentucky U

Father Hector R G Perez, STD St. Stephen Congregation, Florida

Rabbi Gary Perras Temple Israel, Daytona Beach, Florida

Scott Rae Professor, Talbot School of Theology, Biola University, California

Rolf and Sherri Ronstadt Directors, International Ambassadors for Christ, Illinois

Austin Ruse President, Catholic Family and Human Rights Initiative

Nelda Smothers Int’l Service Corp missionary, Southern Baptist Convention, Illinois

Jude Chua Soo Meng, PhD Assistant Professor, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

William Sweetman, PhD Lecturer in Theology, University of Otago, New Zealand

Kenneth Gary Talbot, PhD President and Professor, Whitefield Theological Seminary, Florida

Matthew A. Tapie Assistant Minister, Farmers Branch Church of Christ, Texas

David Thurman Chaplain


Signatories:

Religious and human rights leaders 3

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Bekeh Utietiang Student in Theology and Religious Studies, Catholic U of America

Peter H. VandeBrake, MDiv, PhD Headmaster, North Hills Classical Academy

Michael Voet Chair, Wisconsin Social Concerns Ministry

Reverend Curtis Walters Pastor, Covenant Christian Reformed Church, Michigan

Rabbi Daniel M. Zucker Chairman, Americans for Democracy in the Middle-East, New York.

Professor of Hebrew Language, Long Island University

Linda Bly Healthcare and women’s rights advocate, Vermont

Cyril Boynes, Jr. Director, Global Role Models Fund, New York

International Affairs Director, Congress of Racial Equality

W. Ronald Evans President, National Business League, Washington, DC

Niger Innis National Spokesman, Congress of Racial Equality, New York

Dr. Rosemary M. Jensen President and General Director, Rafiki Foundation, Inc., Texas

Joseph Lovece, Jr. President and CEO, Northstar-Foley Contracting Group, New York

Board Member, Congress of Racial Equality

Norris McDonald President, African American Environmentalist Association, Maryland

Carl L. McGill CEO and Chairman, Black Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles, CA

Assistant Western Regional Director, Congress of Racial Equality

John Meredith Member, Project 21, Virginia

Empowerment, Washington, DC and Kenya

Sam Togba Slewion Social worker, journalist, anti-malaria activist, Liberia & Pennsylvania

Lee H. Walker President, New Coalition for Social and Economic Change, Illinois

 

Signatories:

 

African clergy, disease experts, scholars, and political and business leaders 1

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Desmond M Tutu Archbishop Emeritus, Cape Town Diocese, South Africa

1984 Nobel Peace Laureate

F. W. de Klerk Former President of South Africa

1993 Nobel Peace Laureate

Reverend Chanshi Chanda Acton International Affiliate, Zambia

Bishop Bernard Njoroge Episcopal Bishop of Nairobe, Kenya

Member of the Kenyan Constitutional Commission

Hajiya Ashe Galadima Bama Local Government, Nigeria

Christina Dlamini Irvin Member, Royal Family of Swaziland

Hon. General Elly Tumwine Senior Presidential Adviser and Member of Parliament., Uganda

Chairman, The Creations Ltd.

John Dada, PhD, RN, MPH Programs Director, Fantsuam Foundation, Nigeria

Dzabu Dlamini, MBA Financial analyst, Swaziland

Dr Fatai A. Fehintola, PhD Senior Lecturer and Consultant Physician/Clinical Pharmacologist

Dept of Clinical Pharmacology, University College Hospital, Nigeria

Joseph Harvey, MD, MPH&TM Diplomate ABFP Medical Director, Pioneer Christian Hospital,

Impfondo, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

Rebecca S. Harvey, RN Missionary Nurse, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

Robert T. Jensen, MD Founder, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania

John P. Kabayo, PhD Coordinator, Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication

Campaign, African Union, Ethiopia

Former Member of Parliament of Uganda

Dr. Ronel Kellerman MBChB (Pretoria), DTM&H (Liverpool), MSc (LSTMH)

Specialist, School of Public Health, Wits University, South Africa

Professor Wen L. Kilama Managing Trustee, African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET),

Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology, Tanzania

Cindy Korir, PhD Malaria Research Program, Vaccine Center, Emory Univ, Georgia

Native of Kenya

Makundi Emmanuel, MPhil Medical Sociologist, Health Systems and Policy Research Department

National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania

Abere Mihrete, PhD Director, Anti-Malaria Association, Ethiopia

Pauline NM Mwinzi, PhD   Senior Research Officer, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

John Spurrier, MD Medical Advisor to the Executive Director, Macha Mission Hospital,

Zambia

Antoine Leonard van Gelder, MD Professor and Head of Internal Medicine Department, University of

Pretoria, South Africa

Mamane N. Garba, PharmD Research scientist, Niger, and Graduate Student, Emory Univ, Georgia

Paul Ndebele Bioethicist, Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

Syrulwa Somah, PhD Professor of Environmental Health, North Carolina A&T State Univ.

Executive Director, Liberian History, Education Development, Inc.

Signatories:

 

African clergy, disease experts, scholars, and political and business leaders 2

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Akinyi J. Arunga Inter-Region Economic Network, Kenya

George Ayittey President, Free Africa Foundation, Washington, DC

Thompson Ayodele Director, Institute of Public Policy Analysis, Nigeria

Olanrewaju Bamgbose Chief Operating Officer, Development Concepts, Inc, Nigeria

Bitrus Cobongs President, Africa Center for Mentorship, Texas

Franklin Cudjoe Director, Imani Ghana Centre for Humane Education, Ghana

Eustace Davie Director, Free Market Foundation, South Africa

Simon Gusah Project Manager, People-Centered Development for Tivland, Nigeria

William Hearmon Director, Red Chilies Enterprises, Botswana

Busisiwe Irvin Film Co-Star, Roll Bounce, Swaziland

Kelvin Kemm, PhD (physics)       CEO, Stratek Business Strategy Consultants, South Africa

Gertrude Kihunrwa Mother and malaria control advocate, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Fiona Kobusingye Farmer, businesswoman and Malaria educator, Uganda

Titus Korir Corporate Affairs Director, James Finlay, Ltd., Kenya

Leon Louw Executive Director, Free Market Foundation of South Africa

Jojo Mulunda Board member, African Student Association, Emory Univ, Georgia

Native of Democratic Republic of Congo

Mulekye T. Mukoko, MIS, BAC Founder, Uzima International Inc (NGO), Maryland  

Associate, Avmark, Inc, United States; native of Congo

Oliver Mupila, PhD Executive Director for the Network of Asylees and Advocates Against

Terror and Torture, Texas

Former Commissioner General, Afro-Elder International, Zambia

Vincent Kasuende Ntambwe Master in Tropical Medicine, Medical Demographer, native of Congo

Chairman of Board, Uzima International (NGO), Belgium

Anthony Okonmah Executive Director, Foundation for Democracy in Africa, Florida

Fred Oladeinde President/CEO, Foundation for Democracy in Africa, Washington, DC

Rosemary S. Segero President & CEO, Humanitarian Initiative for Community Development

Professor Themba Sono President, Alliance of Free Democrats, South Africa

President, University of South Africa Convocation

Hoangizaw Tegegne Coordinator, Canadian Initiative Against Malaria, Ethiopia

Richard Tren Director, Africa Fighting Malaria, South Africa

Jasson Urbach Coordinator, Africa Fighting Malaria, South Africa

H. Christo Viljoen, PhD Deputy Vice Chancellor (emeritus), Stellenbosch Univ,South Africa

Mabe Akhos Wathyso General Secretary, Grapedeco International, Nairobi, Kenya

Muna A. Wreh, MPA, CSAC Development Economist, Women & Youth Advocate, Liberia

Tawanda Zidenga PhD candidate in Biosciences, Ohio State Univ, Ohio and Zimbabwe

Edmund Zingu, PhD Past President, South African Institute of Physics, South Africa

 

Signatories:

 

Educators and public policy experts 1

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Mattias Bengtsson President, Centre for the New Europe, Belgium

Ed Crane President, Cato Institute, Washington, DC

T. Kenneth Cribb, Jr. President, Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Delaware

Former Domestic Policy Advisor to President Ronald Reagan

Thomas R. DeGregori, PhD Professor of Economics, University of Houston, Texas

Paul Driessen Senior Policy Advisor, Center for Defense of Free Enterprise, Virginia

Senior Policy Advisor, Congress of Racial Equality

Director, Economic Human Rights Project

Hannes Gissurarson Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Iceland

Former Chief Advisor to the Prime Minister of Iceland

Deepak Lal Professor of International Development, U of California at LA (UCLA)

Professor Emeritus of Political Economy, University College, London

Herb London President, Hudson Institute, New York

Shamim ul Moula, PhD, MBBS Chief Executive, Parallel Force for Development, Bangladesh

Chairman, Safe Life (national Bangladesh NGO)

Benny J. Peiser, PhD Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, England

C. S. Prakash, PhD Director, Ctr for Plant Biotechnology Research, Tuskegee U, Alabama

David M. Stanley Chairman, National Taxpayers Union, Washington, DC

Brian S. Wesbury Adjunct Professor of Economics, Wheaton College

Member, Academic Advisory Council: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Talal Abu-Hassan Program Officer, Center for International Private Enterprise, Virginia

Nizam Ahmad President, Free Bangla Market, United Kingdom and Bangladesh

James Ahiakpor, PhD Professor of Economics, California State University East Bay, CA

Paul J. Allen Fisheries Research Biologist, Ball State University, Indiana

Abdullahi A. An-Na`im, PhD Charles H. Candler Professor of Law, Emory School of Law, Georgia

Alex Avery Research Director, Ctr for Global Food Issues, Hudson Inst, Virginia

Dennis Avery Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute, Virginia

Charles Baird Co-Chairman, Dept.. of Economics, Cal State University at East Bay

Whitney L. Ball Executive Director, Donors Trust, Virginia

Thomas Behr, PhD Professor, Department of History, University of Houston, Texas

George Bennett Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Millikin University, Illinois

Eneas Biglione Latin American Fellow, Atlas Foundation, Virginia and Argentina

Mr. Greg Blankenship Executive Director, Illinois Policy Institute

Karol Boudreaux Senior Fellow, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Virginia

Hardy Bouillon, PhD Director of Academic Affairs, Centre for the New Europe, Belgium

Peter J. Brown, PhD Professor of Anthropology and Global Health, Emory Univ, Georgia

David Burgess Adjunct Professor, Institute of World Politics, Washington, DC

Peter Burgess CEO, Transparency and Accountability Network, New York

H. Sterling Burnett, PhD Senior Fellow, National Center for Policy Analysis, Texas

Paul Caprio Executive Director, Family-PAC Federal, Illinois


Signatories:

Educators and public policy experts 2

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Kenneth W. Chilton, PhD Director, Institute for Study of Economics and the Environment

Associate Professor of Management, Lindenwood University, Missouri

Paul A. Cleveland Professor of Economics, Birmingham-Southern College, Alabama

Jody Clarke Communications Director, Competitive Enterprise Institute, Virginia

Gregory Conko Senior Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute, Virginia

Philip Coticelli Researcher, Africa Fighting Malaria, Maryland

Eleanor Craig, PhD Professor of Economics, University of Delaware

Barrie Craven, PhD Reader in Public Accountability, Newcastle Business School, England

John W. Danford, PhD Professor of Political Science, Loyola University Chicago

Karen P. Danford, PhD  Adjunct Instructor, University of Chicago

Douglas E Daugherty, Sr. Coordinator, Chattanooga Resource Foundation, Tennessee  

Henry L. Deneen Executive Director, Center for Global Strategies, South Carolina

Philip E. Devine, PhD Professor of Philosophy, Providence College, Rhode Island

Thomas DeWeese President, American Policy Center, Virginia

G. Edward Dickey, PhD Affiliate Professor of Economics, Loyola College of Maryland

Vicki Dunne, MLA Member for Ginninderra, Shadow Minister for Education, Australia

Richard T. Dykema Chief of Staff/Legislative Director, Representative Dana Rohrabacher

U.S. House of Representatives, California

Jon Entine Adjunct Fellow, American Enterprise Institute, Ohio

Edwar Escalante President, Andes Libres, Peru

Cesar Fernandez-Stoll President, Ferstoll Management Consultants, Ontario, Canada

Duggan Flanakin Regional Director, Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow, Texas

Michael Fumento Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute, Virginia

Castle J. Funatake Grad Research Asst, Envir & Molecular, Toxicology, Oregon State U

Glenn Goforth Headmaster, Providence Classical School

John C. Goodman President, National Center for Policy Analysis, Texas

Mark Y. Herring Dean of Library Services, Winthrop University, South Carolina

Peter Holle President, Frontier Centre for Public Policy, Manitoba, Canada

Waldemar Ingdahl Director, Eudoxa think tank, Stockholm, Sweden

Lene Johansen Director of US Operations, The Eudoxa Think Tank, Missouri

James L. Johnston First Vice President, Heartland institute, Illinois

Daniel Kahn Research Assistant, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

Robert O. Kalbach, Ph. D Assoc. Professor of Chemistry, Finger Lakes Community College, NY

Joel M. Kauffman, PhD Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, University of Sciences, Philadelphia

Ruth Kava, PhD, RD Director of Nutrition, Amer Council on Science & Health, New York

Drew L. Kershen Professor of Law, University of Oklahoma College of Law, Oklahoma

Henry Lamb President, Environmental Conservation Organization, Tennessee

Thomas D. Lancaster, PhD Senior Assoc Dean for Undergraduate Education, Emory Univ, Georgia

Carl Lecher, PhD Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Marian College, Indianapolis, IN

Signatories:

Educators and public policy experts 3

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Michael Lee Department of Finance, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland

Leonard P. Liggio Professor and Executive VP, Atlas Economic Research Fdn, Virginia

Christopher Lingle, PhD Senior Fellow, Centre for Civil Society, India

Brad Lips Chief Operating Officer, Atlas Economic Research Fdn, Virginia

Romulo Lopez-Cordero Senior Fellow, Atlas Economic Research Foundation, Virginia

Ashley March Director of Foundation Relations, Cato Institute, Washington

Joseph P. Martino, PhD Yorktown University, Colorado

Bob McClure President and CEO, James Madison Institute, Florida

Alister McFarquhar, PhD Downing College, Cambridge University, England

Robert and Mary McIntyre The Oakwood School, Virginia

Tracy Miller Assoc. Professor of Economics, Grove City College, Pennsylvania

Steven Milloy Investment Advisor, Free Enterprise Action Fund, Maryland

Publisher, JunkScience.com

Alberto Mingardi General Director, Istituto Bruno Leoni, Italy

Barun Mitra President, Liberty Institute, India

Deroy Murdock Senior Fellow, Atlas Economic Research Foundation, New York

Sultana Nazneen, PhD Directing Staff, Higher Secondary Teachers Training Inst, Bangladesh

Nick Nichols Crisis Management Instructor, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland

C. R. Nicolaysen University Registrar, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

Eric O’Keefe President, Parents in Charge Foundation, Illinois

Gary J. Palmer President, Alabama Policy Institute, Alabama

E. C. Pasour, Jr. Agricultural and Resource Economics, North Carolina State University

Sylvia Chafuen de Pasquier  President, Instituto de Ciencia, Economía, Educación y Salud, Bolivia 

Joel Patrick Admissions Coordinator, Criswell College, Texas

Daniel S. Peters President, Ruth & Lovett Peters Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio

John G. Pierce Adjunct Professor, Modern Languages, Columbus State Comm. College

William S. Pierce Professor Emeritus of Economics, Case Western Reserve University

Daniel D. Polsby Dean and Foundation Professor of Law, George Mason University

School of Law, Virginia

Arthur Pontynen, PhD Professor, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Scott A. Pullins, Esq. Executive Director, Consumer Alert, Ohio and Washington, DC

Howard S. Rich President, U.S. Term Limits, Washington, DC

Jay W. Richards, PhD Research Fellow, Acton Institute for Study of Religion & Liberty, MI

Co-author, The Privileged Planet

John H. Riskind, PhD Professor of Psychology, George Mason University, Virginia

Editor, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy

Brooke Rollins President Texas Public Policy Foundation, Texas

Jeffrey A. Rosensweig, PhD Assoc Professor, International Business and Finance, Emory U, Georgia

James Roumasset, PhD Professor of Economics, University of Hawaii

 

Signatories:

Educators and public policy experts 4

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Richard O. Rowland President, Grassroot Institute of Hawaii

Craig Rucker Executive Director, Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow, Virginia

D. Eric Schansberg, PhD Professor of Economics, Indiana University at New Albany, Indiana

Stephen Suleyman Schwartz Executive Director, Center for Islamic Pluralism, Washington, DC

Todd Seavey Editor, HealthFactsAndFears.com, New York

Holli A. Semetko, PhD Vice Provost for International Affairs, Emory University, Georgia

Tracie Sharp President, State Policy Network

Thomas R. Simmons, PhD. Professor, Greenfield Community College, Greenfield, Massachusetts

Daniel Mead Smith President, Washington Policy Center, Washington

Carlo Stagnaro Director, Free Market Environmentalism, Istituto Bruno Leoni, Italy

Patti Strand Executive Director, National Animal Interest Alliance, Oregon

Suprada Sukonthabhirom PhD candidate in Entomology, Kasetsart University, Thailand

Priscilla Tacujan Atlas Economic Research Foundation, Virginia and Philippines

Jose L. Tapia-Rocha President, Instituto de Libre Empressa, Peru

Steve Ugbah, PhD Professor, College of Business & Economics, California State Univ

Geert van Calster, Dr. PhD Co-director, Institute of Environmental and Energy Law, Belgium

John Valentine Associate, Athena Capital Partners, Florida

Elena Draghici Vasilescu, PhD University of Oxford, England

Mario Villarreal Research Fellow, American Enterprise Institute. Mexico

Bob Williams President Evergreen Freedom Foundation, Washington

Whitney Tilson Board Member, Fistula Foundation, New York

(supports Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital in Ethiopia)

John D. Willis, PhD Director, Graduate Studies in Dispute Resolution, Sullivan Univ, KY

Xu Yiqiao Program Manager, Atlas Economic Research Fdn, Virginia and China

 

Signatories:

Business, political and government executives, and other people of conscience 1

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

David M. Beasley Former Governor of South Carolina

Zbigniew Jaworowski Former Chairman, UN Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic

Radiation. Poland

Steffond Johnson CEO, The O’Shea Group, and former NBA basketball player, Texas

Supporter and participant, “Dunk Malaria” initiative

David Keene Chairman, American Conservative Union

Lance Laifer Co-Founder, Hedge Funds vs. Malaria, Connecticut

Tibor R. Machan, PhD Professor of Economics, Argyros School of Business and Economics

Chapman University, California

Edwin Meese III Former Attorney General of the United States

Alan Oxley Chairman, Australian APEC Centre, Monash University, Australia

David M. C. Robertson Drive Against Malaria, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Peter A. Samuelson President, Americans United for Life

Robert Whelan Deputy Director, Civitas: Institute for the Study of Civil Society

London, UK

Amb. Curtin Winsor, Jr. PhD Ambassador to Costa Rica (1983-85), Virginia

Trustee of William H. Donner Fdn and Former Trustee of Africare

Dr. Robert D. Wolgemuth, LHD Wolgemuth & Associates, Inc., Florida

Jennifer Burr Altabef Attorney, Dallas, Texas

Kalajine Anigbogu President, Global Real Estate Services Ltd, Illinois and Nigeria

Steven Baer Trustee, Chicago Freedom Trust, Illinois

Doug Bandow Columnist and economic analyst, Virginia

Alexander Barnett, PhD  Artistic Director, Classic Theatre International. Maryland

Kalman Lee Benuska Structural Engineer, California

Stuart L. Berman, MSc Steelcase, Inc, Michigan

Richard & Joanne Beyer Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Donovan R. Bigelow, LLM. Psychotherapist and lecturer, Seattle, Washington

Randal & Deborah Birkey Oak Park, Illinois

Brian Bloss Student and member of Western Kentucky University forensics team

Russell Boast Associate Producer, The Malaria Project: 3 Billion and Counting, Calif

Keith W. Boatow Blue Magic Music, Inc., New York

Richard J. Boerner President, Seco Investments, Inc.

Thomas Borelli, PhD President, Free Enterprise Action Fund, New York

George Borgen Political organizer, Hialeah Florida

Sussy Borgen Consultant /Branch Manager, TS Consulting International, California

James T. Brankin CEO NetWeavers, Texas

Matthew J. Brouillette CEO, Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives, PA

Samuel A. Brunelli Senior Vice President, Team Builders International, Florida

Marcel D. P. Burgler, CCIM Principal Associate Broker, Prime Development Grand Rapids, MI

 

Signatories:

Business, political and government executives, and other people of conscience 2

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Wesley Calhoun Student and member of Western Kentucky University forensics team

Christina Carroll Murray State University, Murray, KY

Alan Caruba President, The Caruba Organization, New Jersey

Ralph W. Conner Former Mayor, Maywood, Illinois

Phyllis Kurlander Costanza Advocate for children’s health and rights, Atlanta, Georgia

Ann Wilson Cramer Corporate Community Relations and Public Affairs, IBM Company

Mark R. Crovelli PhD candidate, University of Colorado at Boulder

Paolo Cugnasca New York, NY

James M Currin, PE Consulting mechanical engineer, Michigan

John D’Aloia, Jr. Captain, US Navy (retired), Columnist

Crystal A. Daly Computer Technician, Florida

Gene F. Danforth Paralegal and US Marine Corps (retired), Danbury, NH

Philip De Beer Progressive Architect, Self-Sustainable Ecological Housing, London   

Michael F. Denny President, American Wine Distributors, San Francisco, California

Michael K. Doane Director, Biotechnology Acceptance, Monsanto Company

John Dziak Graduate student in statistics, Penn State University, Pennsylvania

Timothy M. Egan President, High Park Group, Canada

Randy Eminger Energy and Environment Analyst, Texas

Karl B. Erickson Oregon State Government, Independent Writer, Oregon

Luis Felipe Student in business administration, Santiago, Chile

Peter Flaherty President, National Legal and Policy Center, Washington, DC

Elizabeth A. Foreman Public Educator, Tucson, Arizona

Angela French Carlisle, Ohio

Maura C. Furey Chicago, Illinois

Gus Gianello Day Trader, Ontario, Canada

Roger and Jeannie Giellis Denver, Colorado

Indur Goklany Environmental Policy Analyst, Virginia

Nancy Watson Good Co-Founder, ChicagoCare Crisis Pregnancy Centers, Illinois

Gary J. Green Consultant, Energy, Environmental, Health & Safety Risk, Arizona

Nancy & Lucien Grimm Frederick County, VA

Roland Gunn Vice President, Peterson Companies, Virginia

Marc Daniel Gutekunst, PhD Co-Founder and CEO, Dekalb International Training Center, Georgia

Ivan Habanec Consultant, London, UK

William Hennen Pre-med, public health student, Utah

Member of Amnesty International

David Hogberg, PhD Senior Research Associate, Capital Research Center

Jenny Hone Editor, Scrip Magazine, United Kingdom

Carl F. Horowitz National Legal and Policy Center, Washington, DC

 

Signatories:

Business, political and government executives, and other people of conscience 3

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Devin Hosea Managing Director, Ritchie Capital Management, New York

President and CEO, American Biophysics Corporation, Rhode Island

Barbara Howard Barbara Howard & Associates, Miami Beach, FL

Richard & Barbara L. Hubbard Associate Real Estate Brokers, Cirrus Realty Group, Phoenix, Arizona

Soleman A. Idd Rainforest conservation director, Gabon and New Jersey

Ararat Ayob Eritrean-American poet, Virginia

Paul Jacob Citizens in Charge Foundation, Virginia

Alexander Jech Graduate student in philosophy, Notre Dame University, Indiana

Frances Brigham Johnson International Property Rights Working Group, Virginia

James and Ulrike Karanja Bad Endbach-Hartenrod, Germany

Rick Klemm Executive Director, Hawaiian Alliance for Responsible Technology &

Science

Carol W. LaGrasse President, Property Rights Foundation of America, New York

Neal J. Lang Vice President for Information Systems, MWI Corporation, Florida

Johnny Lattner 1953 Heisman Trophy Winner (Notre Dame)

Flo Limehouse Real estate broker, Tyler, Texas

Pierre Little Publisher, Atlantic Business Journal, New Brunswick, Canada

Michael W. Lutke Republic, Missouri

James & Mary Martorana Lakewood, California

Jeff Maslan President, Maryland State Pest Control Association

Mark Mathis Exec. Director, Citizens’ Alliance for Responsible Energy, New Mexico

Robert Migliori Boynton Beach FL

Roy Miller Phoenix, Arizona

Henry K. Mngerem Georgia and Nigeria

Martha Montelongo Commentator and radio host, California

Deneen Moore Free Enterprise Action Fund, New York

Charles F. Morton Union City, Michigan

William Nesler CEO, West Coast Aerial Applicators, Liberia

Mark Nichols President, Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs, Oklahoma

David Petch CBE London, England

William Pickell CEO, Washington Contract Loggers Association, Washington

Isaac Post Regulatory Analyst, Competitive Enterprise Inst, Washington, DC

Franklin Raff Executive Producer, Network Radio, Radio America, Virginia

Francesco Ramella, PhD. Freelance Consultant, Italy

Admiral Michael Ratliff Former Director of Naval Intelligence, US Navy (retired)

Ramon Reblora LCDR Ramon B Reblora PCG, Coast Guard, Philippines

Marjorie Ridley Comfort, Texas

Peter Schaefer International Development Specialist, Virginia

Justin Schwab PhD Candidate, University of California at Berkeley

 

Signatories:

Business, political and government executives, and other people of conscience 4

 

Note: Organizational affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not necessarily imply any formal organizational endorsements of the Declaration.

 

Name Title, affiliation(s) and state or country of residence:

 

Barre Seid CEO, Tripp Lite, Illinois

Jeffrey C. Silleck Executive Director, Pregnancy Decision Health Centers

John R. Slagle Tech Community College, Indiana

Sebastian Soto Fulbright/APSA Congressional Fellow, Washington, DC and Chile

Chauncey Starr President Emeritus, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA

Louis A. Stock Chemical Industry Engineer (Retired)

Garnett Stover, Dr. President, Stover Chiropractic, Virginia

Dale Stuart CPA, Rogers, Arkansas

Jernej Šuštar, MAE Walsh College, Troy, MI

James E. Swinnen McGlinchey Stafford, PLLC, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tom Tevlin President & CEO, Greenspirit Strategies Ltd, British Columbia, Canada

John Tillman President, Americans for Limited Government, Illinois

Greg Valentine VP of Business Development, SEEGRID Corporation, Pennsylvania

Michael Vassar Actuary, Aon consulting, New York

Vaclav Venc Partner, Customs Business Solutions, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Christine C. Weber Systems Consultant, Cincinnati, Ohio

Michael R. Wetzel, ACF, CF Forester, Richardson Bell & McLeod, Georgia

Jeffrey Widmann Operations director, West Coast Aerial Applicators, South Dakota

David Williams Forth Worth, Texas

Linda Yarbrough` Widow of American relief worker and malaria victim, New Mexico

Jerry Zandstra, PhD Candidate for United States Senate, Michigan

Taras & Christina Zvir Washington DC

Jeffrey C. Zysik Managing Director, Tax & Administrative Services, Charitable Entity

Administration, Florida

 

Kill Malarial Mosquitoes NOW!

 

Background: Facts about DDT and opposition to it

The wide-ranging attacks on and near-banning of DDT is arguably history’s most devastating embrace of junk science. DDT is one of the single most effective tools for fighting malaria, a disease that kills over 1 million people annually. Most of these deaths are among children and pregnant women, and those lucky enough to survive malaria are often left brain-damaged and facing a blighted future.[2]

About 2.2 billion people live in malarial regions, and over half a billion people suffer acutely from the potentially fatal disease every year. Over 70 percent of them live in Africa.[3]

Malaria is not just an unnecessary human tragedy; it is also an economic disaster. The disease imposes a huge economic toll on malarial countries – discouraging foreign investors, incapacitating otherwise productive people, keeping millions at home to care for the sick, instead of producing goods and services, and exacting enormous healthcare costs that reduce budgets needed for other health, social and environmental programs.[4] The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that malaria may exact an economic cost on impoverished nations in excess of $12 billion per year.[5]

eHeOn a cost-benefit basis, malaria control ranks among the top priorities for measures to improve the world, according to the Copenhagen Consensus 2004, a panel of world-leading economists sponsored by The Economist magazine. [6]

Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, which carry deadly or debilitating protozoa from infected to non-infected people. Killing or repelling malarial mosquitoes has the bonus effect of halting other mosquito-borne diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Shortly after the Second World War, DDT was used to eradicate or dramatically reduce malaria in the U.S., Europe, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, India, and many southern African countries.

In 1971, WHO said DDT is the “major single factor that made the concept of time-limited eradication possible.” It recommended continuing insecticide availability, “particularly DDT.”

Why? Because sprayed once or at most twice a year on mud and thatch huts and cinderblock homes common in Africa and other poor countries, DDT keeps mosquitoes from even entering, irritates those that do so they rarely bite, and kills most that land on the walls.

DDT both repels AND kills mosquitoes. Even mosquitoes resistant to DDT’s insect-killer properties are repelled from homes and buildings whose walls have been sprayed with the insecticide, thereby protecting all the people therein.

No other pesticide – at any price is as effective, long-lasting, cost-effective and safe as DDT for killing and repelling malarial mosquitoes. In fact, DDT keeps up to 90 percent of mosquitoes from even entering a home. However, to kill (but generally not repel) DDT-resistant mosquitoes, alternative pesticides like synthetic pyrethroids and carbamates can also be effective.

No anti-malaria vaccine exists today, and there is little prospect of an effective vaccine being commercially available in the next ten years. Until that day, as history has shown, the best way to reduce or eliminate the incidence of malaria is to prevent the disease in the first place, by controlling the Anopheles mosquitoes that carry it.

This strategy works. Today, it can be combined with new and extremely effective artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) medicines, which both cure malaria in afflicted patients, and interrupt the chain of malaria parasite transmission from an ill person to another mosquito, and then to the next uninfected victim. DDT targets the mosquito, and ACTs target the malaria parasite. Used together, they are stunningly effective, as recent studies from Southern Africa dramatically demonstrate.

Many malarial countries have woefully inadequate healthcare and transportation systems. As a result, many of those in need of treatment go without, and many die. If proper malaria controls were in place, fewer people would be infected, and those that are infected would have a better chance to receive effective drugs and treatment.

The US government promotes the use of anti-malarial drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets. These have a place in malaria control. But they cannot and should not replace other interventions, such as indoor spraying with insecticides, which dramatically reduce malaria cases and deaths.

In fact, indoor residual spraying with DDT reduced malaria cases and deaths by nearly 75 percent in Zambia over a two-year period – and by over 80 percent in South Africa in just one year.[7]

Having reduced malaria rates so dramatically, South Africa was then able to provide ACT medicines to a much smaller number of people who still became critically ill. In just three years, it slashed malaria rates by an astounding 96 percent![8] Other countries successfully followed South Africa’s lead, and others also want to.

It is therefore critical that the USAID, World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, Roll Back Malaria and other agencies help ensure that malaria endemic countries have ready access to DDT. Indeed, according to its own website, “the WHO recommends indoor residual spraying of DDT for vector control.”[9] But in practice it rarely does. These agencies must ensure that countries can reduce their malaria levels far enough that all who nevertheless get the disease can be treated with ACTs (or other equally effective) therapies that will remain in extremely short supply for the foreseeable future.

Insecticide-treated nets certainly help to a limited degree. However, they often get torn. They only protect one or two people at a time. People often don’t use them, because the insecticide irritates their skin – or they forget … kick them off when it gets too unbearably hot under the net to sleep … don’t have enough for every family member … have no way to hang them up properly … or are still doing homework or housework when mosquitoes arrive.

Sleeping under a bed net is nearly impossible during torrid African nights, says Omololu Falobi, a journalist in Nigeria. Use the net anyway, and you get heat rashes all over your face and body. Most villages have no electricity to power fans or air conditioners, and many of the same environmentalists who oppose pesticides also oppose electricity generation on any scale that would power these cooling systems. Even in cities like Lagos, power outages are frequent, rendering fans and AC useless. “Even if you have a generator,” says Falobi, “you don’t want to put it on throughout the night, for fear of carbon monoxide poisoning.”

Medicines that actually cure malaria (Artemisinin-based) are in critically short supply. Although some USAID bureaucrats also oppose devoting agency funds to ACT medicines, official agency statements raise expectations that there will be 55 million pediatric treatments by 2006. But those treatments must treat 500 million critically ill malaria patients worldwide. That means 445 million will not even have a chance to get treated. Indeed, even under the most optimistic scenarios, there will be sufficient supplies of ACT drugs to treat fewer than 1 in 4 patients for at least the next several years. DDT is absolutely critical to preventing malaria in the first place. Treatment alone will never work.

Expanding the production of Artemisia is also critical, however, and USAID, pharmaceutical companies and others are working hard to do so. More resources must be devoted to these efforts, too.

In highly endemic areas, people can get 1,000 infectious mosquito bites in a single year! Even with a 90% reduction in mosquitoes in the home (via DDT indoor spraying) or outside (through the use of other insecticides), they could still get 100 infectious bites per person per year. It is certain that some people will get malaria even with regular, effective spraying programs. That was and is the experience in South Africa and other countries, and those patients must have access to the very best medicine treatments in our repertoire.

Because they massively or completely eliminate malaria parasites (gametocytes) from the victim’s blood, ACTs have another equally vital benefit. They significantly reduce the probability that a malaria-infected person can pass the infection to a mosquito, and in turn to the next person who gets bitten. Indeed, the gametocidal effect of artemisinins may be comparable in magnitude to entomological (insecticidal) effects of DDT. Some research has found that one ACT drug (Coartem) slashed the proportion of patients carrying transmissible parasites to around 1/25 of what it had been when using older malaria medicines, such as SP or chloroquine, which are no longer clinically appropriate. In fact, these obsolete medicines may fail in 50 to 80 percent of the cases.

Recognition of these facts is the principal reason that South Africa was able to go from an 80 percent reduction in malaria disease and death rates, using DDT alone – and then to a 96 percent reduction over 3 years, using DDT in combination with Coartem.

Drugs designed to prevent (through prophylaxis) the onset of malaria (Chloroquine, Malarone, Doxycycline and others) are likewise inadequate for 2.2 billion people who are at risk from malaria worldwide. In any event, people living in malarial areas cannot take malaria prophylaxis over an extended period of time, because of the expense and the side-effects they will suffer

Only by slashing the number of people getting malaria, can malaria-wracked countries get the best drugs to those who still get sick. To do that, they need insecticides, especially DDT.

DDT and other insecticides helped eradicate malaria in the United States and Europe, saving countless lives. Today, insecticides are still our first line of defense against West Nile virus and other diseases. It is callous and hypocritical for the United States to tell African and other malarial endemic nations that they cannot spray insecticides, when we use aerial and ground spraying every day. Moreover, we spray insecticides directly into the environment, whereas spraying DDT for malaria control only sprays insecticides inside houses.

The USAID once funded very effective indoor residual spraying programs around the world. It can and must revive America’s and the world’s once-proud anti-malaria programs.

Used by trained specialists in indoor residual spraying programs, almost no DDT gets into the environment. It’s safe for humans, too. In its latest review of DDT, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences admits it cannot prove that DDT harms human health.

Indeed, about the worst thing opponents can say is that “measurable quantities” of DDT are “present” in human fatty tissue and mother’s breast milk, and “could” inhibit lactation or cause low birth weight babies. But these alleged problems are all but irrelevant compared to the risk of losing hundreds of thousands of children to malaria, year after year.

To a large extent, Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring launched the modern environmental movement and inspired the US EPA’s 1972 domestic ban of DDT. Since then, the US ban has expanded into a de facto global ban, with devastating effects. Carson’s facts, however, were wrong.[10]

Extensive hearings on DDT before an EPA administrative law judge occurred during 1971-1972. The EPA hearing examiner, Judge Edmund Sweeney, concluded that “DDT is not a carcinogenic hazard to man .... DDT is not a mutagenic or teratogenic hazard to man .... The use of DDT under the regulations involved here does not have a deleterious effect on freshwater fish, estuarine organisms, wild birds or other wildlife.”[11]

Overruling the EPA hearing examiner, EPA Administrator William Ruckelshaus banned DDT in 1972. However, Ruckelshaus never attended a single hour of the seven months of EPA hearings on DDT. His aides reported that he did not even read the transcript of the EPA hearings on DDT. [12]

How could this have happened? Because banning DDT was a political, not a scientific, decision. And its real author was President Richard M. Nixon.

“On February 10, 1970 he announced: ‘we have taken action to phase out the use of DDT and other hard pesticides.’ In December 1970, the administration created the EPA to implement executive environmental policy. As a 1975 study out of Northern Illinois University notes, ‘This is important. Long before the EPA hearings were convened and even before the EPA was created, Ruckelshaus’ boss, President Nixon, had stated that DDT was being phased out. This leaves the hearings themselves superfluous, satisfying only a court requirement.’"[13]

The DDT ban by EPA was followed by a USAID and WHO shift away from killing mosquitoes and toward other methods of malaria control (drug treatments, mosquito nets and more nebulous notions like “capacity building” and “integrated vector management”). However, these methods have not proven even remotely as effective as indoor residual spraying and other pesticide programs.[14]

A now debunked, odiously Malthusian population control logic also supported the de facto DDT ban in Africa and other poor regions. A USAID official reportedly said of those whom malaria would kill as a result of the ban on DDT: “Rather dead than alive and riotously reproducing.” Others have made similar statements.[15]

Physician-author-medical researcher Michael Crichton has said the de facto ban on DDT to control malaria “has killed more people than Hitler.”[16] This is all the more tragic because, in the nearly half-century since Silent Spring was written, no connection between DDT and cancer, birth defects or any other human malady has ever been scientifically demonstrated. The only documented environmental effects of residual DDT are possible reproductive harms to raptors, including thinning of their eggshells, and even these have not been demonstrated conclusively.[17]

DDT junk science drove the world to the brink of imposing a universal ban on DDT via the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The convention, known as the POPs Treaty, would have made the de facto ban legally binding and permanent. However, conscientious scientists and public health officials rallied to carve out a “DDT exemption” in the treaty. That exemption:

1)     restricts DDT use and production to disease vector (e.g. mosquito) control only and does not permit the insecticide’s renewed use for agriculture;

2)     requires that countries using DDT must follow WHO guidelines for disease/vector control;

3)     requires that countries notify the WHO if they use DDT;

4)     requires that rich countries pay the “agreed incremental costs” of more expensive alternatives to DDT (this is located elsewhere in the treaty); and

5)     encourages rich countries to support research and development of alternatives to DDT.

What the treaty does NOT require is equally important.

1)     It does NOT require that a country notify WHO before it sprays DDT; thus, in an epidemic, a country may spray first and report to the WHO later.

2)     It does NOT require that a country obtain the WHO’s approval at any time.

3)     It does NOT require that poor countries bear the added cost of alternatives to DDT.

4)     It does NOT set a deadline by which countries must stop using or producing DDT.

5)     It does NOT restrict DDT use to malaria control, but allows its use for controlling any vector-borne disease.[18]

And yet, environmental imperialist ideology and inertia inside US-funded aid agencies keep ensuring the deaths of millions each year: USAID spent $80 million on malaria in 2004, but not a dime of it actually purchased insecticides – and only $4 million may have gone toward promoting or buying insecticide-treated bed nets. Most was spent on conferences, consultants and training programs.[19]

Overall, the world spends about $400 million a year in connection with malaria, most of it US money. Almost none of it is actually spent on killing and repelling mosquitoes.

Although signed in 2001 by the Bush Administration, the POPS treaty has not yet been ratified by the United States Senate. US ratification, if it occurs at all, should be conditioned on prior legislation tying US aid monies to DDT deployment for killing and repelling malarial mosquitoes.

Even big media have seen the light on DDT. In recent years, the New York Times, Washington Times, Newsweek, Forbes, Wall Street Journal, Chicago Sun-Times and other papers have run editorials strongly advocating the use of DDT to control mosquitoes and reduce malaria. The New York Times Magazine, New Yorker, Time, Washington Monthly, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor and numerous other periodicals have carried articles and opinion columns advocating expanded DDT use to combat malaria and save lives.

Even some Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund officials have conceded the life-saving need for DDT. “If alternatives to DDT aren’t working, you’ve got to use it. If there’s nothing else and it’s going to save lives, we’re all for it,” their spokesmen have said.[20]

DDT proponents advocate it primarily for indoor residual spraying on unpainted mud or cinderblock walls, which usually is the most cost-effective way to kill/repel malarial mosquitoes. This is akin to Americans spraying Raid insect killer on the walls of their homes, though DDT application typically would not involve aerosols and would have to occur far less often. With indoor spraying, there is a vanishingly-small risk that DDT will even reach the environment.

DDT opponents, however, downplay or ignore the undeniable disease, disability and death tolls that their anti-DDT policies have wreaked in Africa and other malaria-endemic regions.

They falsely equate indoor residual spraying (IRS) with aerial spraying – which itself involves only hypothetical, unproven risk to birds, and may be cost-effective and appropriate (using insecticides other than DDT) in swampy areas near population centers.

They elevate minor hypothetical environmental risks from pesticides over major, very real human risks that those pesticides would reduce or eliminate.

DDT opponents ignore the fact that Dade County, Florida and numerous other US communities routinely spray insecticides to control mosquitoes and other insects that carry far less lethal diseases, like West Nile virus, or simply prove irksome to residents and tourists. They refuse to acknowledge that, in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the US government sprayed much of the flooded and devastated areas with insecticides, to halt the spread of insect-borne diseases.

DDT opponents choose birds over little boys and girls, in a false dichotomy that requires the sacrifice of neither. They advocate the development and distribution of vaccines, bed nets and treatment drugs, plus the implementation of sanitation and other programs. But these interventions will likely take decades to become effective, if they ever do so – and during that time malaria will needlessly slaughter millions more people, who would live if their countries could acquire and deploy DDT and other pesticides now.

We recognize that achieving our objective may require aggressive and public discrediting of these institutional opponents of DDT for IRS – who may, even now, be willing to sacrifice the lives of countless millions of men, women and children in Africa and on other continents, on the altar of junk science, nature worship and callous eco-imperialism. We will not hesitate to expose these organizations or the individuals who set their policies.

Deploying DDT in developing countries is good for the United States. Cutting malaria and other mosquito-borne disease rates: (1) permits strides in education, individual productivity and economic growth in Africa and elsewhere – reducing foreign aid claims on US politicians and taxpayers; (2) eliminates or quells the kinds of misery and non-productivity that often underlie regional unrest and result in requests for US military intervention, and (3) diminishes the ever-present danger of outbreaks, and even pandemics, of exotic, insect-borne diseases in the United States as a result of global travel by infected persons.

Probably no other single action by the United States has the potential for saving more lives, reducing or eliminating more disease, curtailing more human misery, and promoting greater development and prosperity than support for DDT use to control malaria.

Adding this insecticide to the world’s disease control arsenal, by compelling USAID and other aid and healthcare agencies to support its use, would arguably be the greatest single humanitarian and human rights action taken in the past quarter century. Its potential for changing world perceptions about the United States and other donor nations is likewise extensive.

By contrast, failing to Kill or Repel Malarial Mosquitoes NOW will clearly and inevitably result in the needless sickness of billions of children and parents in Africa and other malaria endemic regions of the world – and the needless deaths of millions. It will be seen by the world as a callous continuation of a DDT ban that Michael Crichton properly called “one of the most disgraceful episodes of the twentieth century history of America.”

It is fraudulent science, incompetence and adamant refusal to face reality – rather than deliberate, calculated murder – that has spawned and perpetuated this slaughter. But the death toll equals or exceeds that of the Holocaust (6 million men, women and children) every five years. Since the ban on DDT was first implemented, the body count has surpassed that of all World War II.

 



[1] However, insecticides/repellants other than DDT are contemplated herein for outdoor or indoor applications, including rotation with DDT for IRS, if adjudged most cost-effective for malaria control by national health administrators for any given country.

[2] Testimony of Dr. Anne Peterson, Assistant Administrator for Global Health, USAID, before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, October 6, 2004.

[3] Murru, Maurizio, “Malaria and DDT: Myths and Facts, Health Policy and Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, August 2004.

[4] Ibid. See also Roger Bate and Richard Tren, Malaria and the DDT Story, Institute of Economic Affairs (2003), www.iea.org.uk and Roger Bate, “The Blind Hydra: USAID policy fails to control malaria,” testimony before the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information & International Security, May 12, 2005.

[5] WHO, Fact Sheet on Malaria, www.who.int

[6] See The Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2005 (editorial): “The brainchild of Danish statistician Bjorn Lomborg, the Consensus is an attempt by leading economists (including three Nobel Prize Laureates) to set priorities for spending on development using traditional cost-benefit analysis. ‘We need to know what we should do first,’ says Mr. Lomborg. ‘Not being willing to prioritize does not make the problem go away: It simply becomes less clear – and, most likely, more expensive to solve in the end.’” In a responsive June 21, 2005 letter to the editor of the same periodical, physician James Horton said that malarial “disease control was crucial to the rise of the [American] South. The lesson from Southern history is that Third World economies improve when we address the burdens of diseases like malaria.”

[7] See Richard Tren and Roger Bate, “South Africa’s War on Malaria” Policy Analysis No. 513, March 25, 2004, Cato Institute, Washington DC; Gautam Naik, “Novartis drug shows promise against malaria,” Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2005 (“Malaria infections and deaths plunged 96% in a three-year period,” Naik noted, when South Africa combined new Artemisin-based drugs with DDT indoor spraying in KwaZulu-Natal Province, a region the size of Indiana.)

[8] See Karen Barnes, David Durrheim, et al., “Effect of Artemether-Lumefantrine policy and improved vector control on malaria burden in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa,” PLoS Medicine (Public Library of Science), Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2005; http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020330

[9] See http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/FAQonDDT.pdf

[10] For example, Carson claimed “exposure to DDT, even when doing no observable harm to birds, may seriously affect reproduction. Quail into whose diet DDT was introduced throughout the breeding season survived and even produced normal numbers of fertile eggs. But few of the eggs hatched.” In fact, the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry study she cited actually determined that, when birds were fed high doses of DDT throughout their breeding season, 80% of the quail eggs hatched (compared with “control” birds that were fed no DDT and hatched 84% of their eggs), and more than 80% of pheasant eggs hatched (compared with “control” birds that hatched only 57% of their eggs). See Edwards, J. Gordon, “DDT: A case study in scientific fraud,” Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 2004; http://www.jpands.org/vol9no3/edwards.pdf; Alexander Gourevitch, “Better Living Through Chemistry: DDT could save millions of Africans from dying of malaria – if only environmentalists would let it,” Washington Monthly, March 2003; Tina Rosenberg, “What the world needs now is DDT,” New York Times Magazine, April 10, 2004.

[11] Sweeney, EM. 1972. EPA Hearing Examiner's recommendations and findings concerning DDT hearings, April 25, 1972 (40 CFR 164.32, 113 pages). Summarized in Barrons (May 1, 1972), The Oregonian (April 26, 1972) and J. Gordon Edwards (op. cit.). But in 1970, then Assistant US Attorney General Ruckelshaus said:DDT is not endangering the public health and has an amazing and exemplary record of safe use. DDT, when properly used at recommended concentrations, does not cause a toxic response in man or other mammals and is not harmful. The carcinogenic claims regarding DDT are unproved speculation.

[12] Santa Ana Register, April 25, 1972 and Edwards.

[13] Bate, Roger, “The Worst Thing Richard Nixon Ever Did,” 4/15/2004 at http://www.techcentralstation.com/041504I.html

[14] See Donald Roberts, Professor of Tropical Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Bethesda, MD), testimony before U.S. Senate Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, October 6, 2004.

[15] Desowitz, R.S., Malaria Capers, W.W. Norton Company, 1992. Jacques Cousteau told Nouvelle Observateur, “In order to stabilize world populations, we must eliminate 350,000 people a day.” Asked whether banning DDT would result in more deaths from disease, Environmental Defense Fund scientist Charles Wurster once said, “People are the cause of all the problems. We need to get rid of some of them, and this is as good a way as any.” Club of Rome director Alexander King wrote in The Discipline of Curiosity, “My chief quarrel with DDT in hindsight is that it greatly added to the population problem.” Sierra Club director Michael McCloskey opined, “By using DDT, we reduce mortality rates in underdeveloped countries, without the consideration of how to support the increase in populations.”

[16] In a 2003 speech to the San Francisco Commonwealth Club, Crichton said: “Banning DDT is one of the most disgraceful episodes in the twentieth century history of America. We knew better, and we did it anyway, and we let people around the world die, and we didn’t give a damn.”

[17] Further details on the faulty science behind claims against DDT can be found on CATO Institute adjunct scholar Steven Milloy’s website: http://junkscience.com/ddtfaq.htm

[18] Attaran, Amir, Malaria Foundation International website, at http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html .

[19] Bate, Roger, “The Blind Hydra,” testimony before U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information & International Security, May 12, 2005.

[20] Kristof, Nicholas, “It’s time to spray DDT,” New York Times, January 8, 2005.